Thursday, September 29, 2005

Feudalism and Autocracy

Feudalism is a certain type of arrangement that means customary ownership. Private ownership is important but not the most important thing. The political theory of those who adhere to feudilism are mainly ruled by those who are conservative, followed by those who belong to the “upper” class ore as it is also called; Aristocracy.
Loyalty to your lord and behaving in the spirit of religion are very important factors for those who are involved in Feudalism. Everything is bound in a contract were the most important things are; honour, respect, concern and last but not least a mutual understanding and recognition.
For instance peasant laborers that work theyre land have to pay a certain amount of theyre income to the land-lord. That is a given because those with money NEED theyre labourers to increase theyre own kapital and also the labourers need theyre income to feed his or hers family. They work together and everybody benefits. Feudalism says that there should always be a leader that rules the public and makes rules.
Autocracy produces slavery as a necessity to the essence of culture.

Edmund Burke(1729-1797)
Spokesman of Aristocracy and against Democracy. If everyone is left free, kaos will amerge. You should behave with good manners and fear of God, for only then will not be any confusion.

Pope Leo XIII (1810-1903)
For Feudalism. The communications beetween masters and workmen have changed. There is lesser balance and can be dangerous.
The 256th Pope-first to be filmed.

Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900)
For Auotocracy. There will always be class division and people are indeed selfish an greedy. Thats how the world works and will continue to work. There is no dignity in labour and hard work. The real dignity is if you can let others do your work for you! Than you can sit and relax. You don´t want great people with you because then you will feel bad abour yourself. What defines Autocracy is a selfish competition.

1770, Thouhgts on the Cause of the Present Discontents (Burke)
1789, The French Revolution.

1790, Reflections of the French Revolution (Burke)

1872, The Greek State (Nietzsche)

1891, May 15, RERUM NOVARUM (Leo)


Capitalism is a social system based on the principle of individual rights. In the context of capitalism, the term private properties a specific definition, it signifies the means of production.
The heart of capitalism rests on the entrepreneurs right to produce what he or she wishes and the consumers right to choose what to buy, so long as goods or services being exchanged are lawful.
The creation of wealth in the past few centuries was made possible because capitalism emerged in free, or nearly free, societies that allowed individuals to seek to better their own conditions without being given orders by higher authorities. In other words, the economic system of capitalism offers the means by which individuals are motivated to improve their lives through hard work and innovation.

Adam Smith (1723-1790), first modern economist, and the “father” of capitalism.

1776, an Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. (Smith)

Liberalism and utilitarianism

Liberalism and utilitarianism stands for a political system that guarantees individual freedom, freedom of choice and action that consist of efficient government and the preservation of social harmony.
Induvidual liberty means that the induvidual cannot be governed in any way, for he is sovereign over himself, his body and mind. The only conduct that may be enforced is when the individual behaviour harms others. Otherwise the individual should be left alone in his comportment, living his life as he chooses, even though that others think it is bizarre, perverse or wrong. That is the individual liberty.

Jeremy Bentham (1748 – 1832) Exponent for utilitarism.

John Stuart Mill (1806 – 1873) Exponent for Liberalism and utilitarism.

1859, “On liberty” published

1860, “Considerations on Representative Government” published

1863, “Utilitarianism” published

1869, “The Subjection of Women” published

Socialism and Communism
Socialism is a system based on state ownership of the means of production. Socialism tries to make the society better as a whole by helping the poor. Those who follow socialism think the reason why the poor are poor is due to public ownership and that should be changed.

Communism is an economic system where property is public and owned by the state. The citizens do not have any properties. Instead they share common wealth. Communism theory is based on the struggle between the economic classes. Capitalism would come to an end when the bourgeoisie would collapse the proletarians and after that the communism will take over whit its classless society.

Karl Marx (1818- 1833) the father of communism.

Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) Exponent of communism.

1844 The Condition of the Working Classes in England is published by Engles

1847, Principles of Communism published by Marx

1848, The Communist Manifesto, published by Marx and Engles.

1849, Wage-Labour and Capital, published by Marx

1864, the first International Workingmen's Association established in England by Marx and Engels

1867, Das Capital, first chapter published by Marx

1871, The Civil War in France published by Marx

1880, Socialism: Utopian and Scientific, published by Marx

1884, Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State published by Engles

1885, Das Kapital, second chapter, published by Engels

1894, Das Kapital, third chapter, published by Engles